The role of immunotherapy in eliminating high-risk treatments for pediatric cancer

Zahra Farhoud, Sepehr Bozorgchenani

Abstract


Chemotherapy, radiation, and surgery are often ineffective in treating refractory or chronic tumors in children. Recent advances in cancer immunotherapy have also improved the outcome of many human tumors, resulting in significant responses in patients who have previously refused to respond to other treatments. The immune system is made up of cells and proteins that work together to maintain immunity against pathogens. Cancer cells can adapt and metastasize over time, express different neoantigens, or express more immune-suppressing mechanisms, allowing them to be identified and eradicated. In this study, we focus on immunotherapy for pediatric cancer and its progression using natural killer (NK) cells, chimeric antigen receptor T cells (CAR-T), and oncolytic virus cells in these patients. For all intents and purposes, toxicity is a concern. Although immunotherapy is believed to have fewer long-term side effects than chemotherapy and radiation therapy, they may have a high rate of short-term side effects, depending on the cause and purpose. These complications can lead to life-threatening illnesses, from mild illnesses such as fever and headaches to more severe illnesses such as autoimmune, neurotoxicity, and opportunistic infections. Any of the problems listed, for example, cytokine release syndrome, can be fatal. Different intensities require multiple tests and trials.


Keywords


Children cancer; Natural killer cells; CAR-T

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