Imaging Reality: A review of COVID-19 Pandemic

Mohammad Mahdi Hanaei, Seyed Mehdi Mousavi, Nazanin Ebrahimi Ghasem Abadi, Chanour Tavakol, Seyedeh Maral Mousavi, Behnaz Ganbar-Moghaddam


Recently, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been the main universal health concern and the most important challenge to the world. This disease affects all age groups, genders and, races. Due to lack of definitive medication detection of the disease in an early stage and prevention of its transmission plays an important role in its control. Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) and chest computed tomography (CT) are the most common diagnostic methods for COVID-19. Besides a review on the general founding of the COVID-19 pandemic, we tried to collect a hand on report focusing on radiological knowledge and its applications, limitations, and instructions.


COVID-19; Radiology; Pandemic; Computed tomography

Full Text:

Full-text PDF


Fadaka AO, Sibuyi NRS, Adewale OB, Bakare OO, Akanbi MO, Klein A, et al. Understanding the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of SARS-CoV-2. J Int Med Res. 2020; 48(8):0300060520949077.

Fan J, Liu X, Pan W, Douglas MW, Bao S. Epidemiology of Coronavirus Disease in Gansu Province, China, 2020. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020; 26(6):1257-65.

Bhattacharya S, Basu P, Poddar S. Changing epidemiology of SARS-CoV in the context of COVID-19 pandemic. J Prev Med Hyg. 2020; 61(2):E130-e6.

Geier MR, Geier DA. Respiratory conditions in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): Important considerations regarding novel treatment strategies to reduce mortality. Med Hypotheses. 2020; 140:109760.

Borges do Nascimento IJ, Cacic N, Abdulazeem HM, von Groote TC, Jayarajah U, Weerasekara I, et al. Novel Coronavirus Infection (COVID-19) in Humans: A Scoping Review and Meta-Analysis. J Clin Med. 2020; 9(4):941.

Jin Y, Yang H, Ji W, Wu W, Chen S, Zhang W, et al. Virology, Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, and Control of COVID-19. Viruses. 2020; 12(4):372.

Ioannidis JPA. Global perspective of COVID-19 epidemiology for a full-cycle pandemic. Eur J Clin Invest. 2020; 50(12):e13423.

Sahu KK, Mishra AK, Lal A. COVID-2019: update on epidemiology, disease spread and management. Monaldi Arch Chest Dis. 2020; 90(1).

Ahmed AT, Ghanem AS. A statistical study for impacts of environmental conditions on the rapid spread of new corona virus. Int J Environ Sci Technol (Tehran). 2020; 17(10):4343-52.

Chakraborty I, Maity P. COVID-19 outbreak: Migration, effects on society, global environment and prevention. Sci Total Environ. 2020; 728:138882.

Liu K, Zhang W, Yang Y, Zhang J, Li Y, Chen Y. Respiratory rehabilitation in elderly patients with COVID-19: A randomized controlled study. Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2020; 39:101166.

Zhou MY, Xie XL, Peng YG, Wu MJ, Deng XZ, Wu Y, et al. From SARS to COVID-19: What we have learned about children infected with COVID-19. Int J Infect Dis. 2020; 96:710-4.

Malheiro R, Figueiredo AL, Magalhães JP, Teixeira P, Moita I, Moutinho MC, et al. Effectiveness of contact tracing and quarantine on reducing COVID-19 transmission: a retrospective cohort study. Public Health. 2020; 189:54-9.

Khan EA. COVID-19 in children: Epidemiology, presentation, diagnosis and management. J Pak Med Assoc. 2020; 70(5):S108-S12.

Javanmardi F, Keshavarzi A, Akbari A, Emami A, Pirbonyeh N. Prevalence of underlying diseases in died cases of COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2020; 15(10):e0241265.

Oxley TJ, Mocco J, Majidi S, Kellner CP, Shoirah H, Singh IP, et al. Large-Vessel Stroke as a Presenting Feature of Covid-19 in the Young. N Engl J Med. 2020; 382(20):e60.

Zhou Z, Zhao N, Shu Y, Han S, Chen B, Shu X. Effect of Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Patients With COVID-19. Gastroenterology. 2020; 158(8):2294-7.

Makhmalbaf M, Hosseini SM, Aghdaei HA, Niasar MS, Shoraka S, Yadegar A, et al. Detection of SARS-CoV-2 Genome in Stool and Plasma Samples of Laboratory Confirmed Iranian COVID-19 Patients. Front Mol Biosci. 2022; 9:865129.

Gupta B, Sharma V, Kumar N, Mahajan A. Anxiety and Sleep Disturbances Among Health Care Workers During the COVID-19 Pandemic in India: Cross-Sectional Online Survey. JMIR Public Health Surveill. 2020; 6(4):e24206.

Pataka A, Kotoulas S, Sakka E, Katsaounou P, Pappa S. Sleep Dysfunction in COVID-19 Patients: Prevalence, Risk Factors, Mechanisms, and Management. J Pers Med. 2021; 11(11) :1203.

Lin C, Xiang J, Yan M, Li H, Huang S, Shen C. Comparison of throat swabs and sputum specimens for viral nucleic acid detection in 52 cases of novel coronavirus (SARS-Cov-2)-infected pneumonia (COVID-19). Clin Chem Lab Med. 2020; 58(7):1089-94.

Lai T, Xiang F, Zeng J, Huang Y, Jia L, Chen H, et al. Reliability of induced sputum test is greater than that of throat swab test for detecting SARS-CoV-2 in patients with COVID-19: A multi-center cross-sectional study. Virulence. 2020; 11(1):1394-1401.

Sardanelli F, Di Leo G. Assessing the Value of Diagnostic Tests in the Coronavirus Disease 2019 Pandemic. Radiology. 2020; 296(3):E193-e194.

Salameh JP, Leeflang MM, Hooft L, Islam N, McGrath TA, van der Pol CB, et al. Thoracic imaging tests for the diagnosis of COVID-19. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020; 9:Cd013639.

Yang Y, Yang M, Yuan J, Wang F, Wang Z, Li J, et al. Laboratory Diagnosis and Monitoring the Viral Shedding of SARS-CoV-2 Infection. Innovation (Camb). 2021;1(3):100061.

Li B, Li X, Wang Y, Han Y, Wang Y, Wang C, et al. Diagnostic value and key features of computed tomography in Coronavirus Disease 2019. Emerg Microbes Infect. 2020; 9(1):787-793.

Fang Y, Zhang H, Xie J, Lin M, Ying L, Pang P, et al. Sensitivity of Chest CT for COVID-19: Comparison to RT-PCR. Radiology. 2020; 296(2):E115-E117.

Quaia E, Baratella E, Crimi F, Cancian L, Crivelli P, Vianello A. High-resolution CT features in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia and negative nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swabs. Pulmonology. 2020; 27(4):351-353.

Li Y, Xia L. Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): Role of Chest CT in Diagnosis and Management. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2020; 214(6):1280-1286.

He JL, Luo L, Luo ZD, Lyu JX, Ng MY, Shen XP, et al. Diagnostic performance between CT and initial real-time RT-PCR for clinically suspected 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) patients outside Wuhan, China. Respir Med. 2020; 168:105980.

Waller JV, Allen IE, Lin KK, Diaz MJ, Henry TS, Hope MD. The Limited Sensitivity of Chest Computed Tomography Relative to Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 Infection: A Systematic Review on COVID-19 Diagnostics. Invest Radiol. 2020; 55(12):754-761.

Ai T, Yang Z, Hou H, Zhan C, Chen C, Lv W, et al. Correlation of Chest CT and RT-PCR Testing for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China: A Report of 1014 Cases. Radiology. 2020; 296(2):E32-e40.

Homayounieh F, Holmberg O, Al Umairi R, Aly S, Basevičius A, Costa PR, et al. Variations in CT Utilization, Protocols, and Radiation Doses in COVID-19 Pneumonia: Results from 28 Countries in the IAEA Study. Radiology. 2021; 298(3):E141-E151.

Mannudeep KK, Homayounieh F, Arru C, Holmberg O, Vassileva J. Chest CT practice and protocols for COVID-19 from radiation dose management perspective. Eur Radiol. 2020; 30(12):6554-6560.

Kim H, Hong H, Yoon SH. Diagnostic Performance of CT and Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction for Coronavirus Disease 2019: A Meta-Analysis. Radiology. 2020; 296(3):E145-E155.

Asefi H, Safaie A. The Role of Chest CT Scan in Diagnosis of COVID-19. Front Emerg Med. 2020;4(2s):e64.

Kang Z, Li X, Zhou S. Recommendation of low-dose CT in the detection and management of COVID-2019. Eur Radiol. 2020; 30(8):4356-4357.

Chen A, Huang J-x, Liao Y, Liu Z, Chen D, Yang C, et al. Differences in clinical and imaging presentation of pediatric patients with COVID-19 in comparison with adults. Radiol Cardiothorac Imaging. 2020; 2(2):e200117.

Ameri A, Rahnama N, Bozorgmehr R, Mokhtari M, Farahbakhsh M, Nabavi M, et al. Low-Dose Whole-Lung Irradiation for COVID-19 Pneumonia: Short Course Results. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2020; 108(5):1134-1139.

Hess CB, Buchwald ZS, Stokes W, Nasti TH, Switchenko JM, Weinberg BD, et al. Low-dose whole-lung radiation for COVID-19 pneumonia: Planned day 7 interim analysis of a registered clinical trial. Cancer. 2020; 126(23):5109-5113.

Kirkby C, Mackenzie M. Is low dose radiation therapy a potential treatment for COVID-19 pneumonia? Radiother Oncol. 2020; 147:221.

Majidi H, Bani-Mostafavi ES, Mardanshahi Z, Godazandeh F, Ghasemian R, Heydari K, et al. High-resolution computed tomography finding in 552 patients with symptomatic COVID-19: first report from north of Iran. Emerg Radiol. 2020; 27(6):633-639.

Huang J, Ding J. Coronavirus disease 2019: initial high resolution computed tomography imaging feature analysis: report of seven cases. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2020; 73(6):459-461.

He X, Zheng J, Ren JL, Zheng G, Liu L. Chest high-resolution computed tomography imaging findings of coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) pneumonia. Int J Radiat Res. 2020; 18(2):343-9.

Karimi MA, Radpour A, Sedaghat A, Gity M, Hekmatnia A, Sanei-Taheri M, et al. Proposed Imaging Guidelines for Pregnant Women Suspected of Having COVID-19. Acad Radiol. 2020; 27(6):902-903.

Yan C, Lin J, Xu Y. Recommendations for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) prevention and infection control in the radiology department: Chinese experience. Clin Imaging. 2020; 69:33-36.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 © The Author(s)

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.